EPA Stormwater Management Model
The Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) is part of EPA’s suite of water research tools. SWMM is a hydrology-hydraulic water quality simulation model used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality in urban areas. SWMM is highly technical and is best suited for those with working knowledge of the industry.
This tool estimates the net embodied carbon of a project’s structures and site. The measurements account for building materials, processes and carbon released due to ecosystem degradation or sequestered through landscape installation or restoration. Landscape inputs are ecoregion, area and type of existing vegetation, area disturbed, and area and type of vegetation installed.
The Center for Watershed Protection, with support from the US Forest Service, created this comprehensive guide to the role and benefits of trees in reducing stormwater runoff. The page also includes various “stormwater forestry practices” that are designed to maximize the effectiveness of trees in stormwater reduction.
This database provides a list of 134 tree species that inhabit the eastern United States and analyses of their reliability given changes in the climate. The atlas uses predicted changes in climate based on three General Circulation Models and two human emissions levels to determine variations in suitable habitat for each tree species.
Although green stormwater infrastructure is a critical tool for solving stormwater management challenges, it is evolving technology with inconsistent performance and uncertain costs. The authors of this article recommend enhancing learning from local implementation efforts to address knowledge gaps and speed cost-effective deployment. The report identifies actions state and federal water quality authorities can take to drive data collection and sharing.